Here we are going through the ncert solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 12- aldehydes ketones and carboxylic acids. so before going through the ncert solutions make sure to go through the textbook that helps you to understand the solutions more easily
Chapter 12 - Aldehydes, Ketones And Carboxylic Acids
Write the structures of the following compounds.
(iii) 2-Hydroxycyclopentane carbaldehyde
(v) Di-sec-butyl ketone
Write the structures of products of the following reactions;
Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their boiling points.
CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, CH3CH2CH3
The molecular masses of the given compounds are in the range 44 to 46. CH3CH2OH undergoes extensive intermolecular H-bonding, resulting in the association of molecules. Therefore, it has the highest boiling point. CH3CHO is more polar than CH3OCH3 and so CH3CHO has stronger intermolecular dipole − dipole attraction than CH3OCH3⋅ CH3CH2CH3 has only weak van der Waals force. Thus, the arrangement of the given compounds in the increasing order of their boiling points is given by:
CH3CH2CH3 < CH3OCH3 < CH3CHO < CH3CH2OH
Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their reactivity in nucleophilic addition reactions.
(i)Ethanal, Propanal, Propanone, Butanone.
(ii)Benzaldehyde, p-Tolualdehyde, p-Nitrobenzaldehyde, Acetophenone.
Hint:Consider steric effect and electronic effect.
The +I effect of the alkyl group increases in the order:
Ethanal < Propanal < Propanone < Butanone
The electron density at the carbonyl carbon increases with the increase in the +I effect. As a result, the chances of attack by a nucleophile decrease. Hence, the increasing order of the reactivities of the given carbonyl compounds in nucleophilic addition reactions is:
Butanone < Propanone < Propanal < Ethanal
The +I effect is more in ketone than in aldehyde. Hence, acetophenone is the least reactive in nucleophilic addition reactions. Among aldehydes, the +I effect is the highest in p-tolualdehyde because of the presence of the electron-donating −CH3 group and the lowest in p-nitrobezaldehyde because of the presence of the electron-withdrawing −NO2 group. Hence, the increasing order of the reactivities of the given compounds is:
Acetophenone < p-tolualdehyde < Benzaldehyde
Predict the products of the following reactions:
Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:
(i) PhCH2CH2COOH (ii) (CH3)2C=CHCOOH
(i) 3-Phenylpropanoic acid
(ii) 3-Methylbut-2-enoic acid
(iii) 2-Methylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid
Show how each of the following compounds can be converted to benzoic acid.
(i) Ethylbenzene (ii) Acetophenone
(iii) Bromobenzene (iv) Phenylethene (Styrene)
Which acid of each pair shown here would you expect to be stronger?
(i) CH3CO2H or CH2FCO2H
(ii)CH2FCO2H or CH2ClCO2H
(iii) CH2FCH2CH2CO2H or CH3CHFCH2CO2H
The +I effect of −CH3 group increases the electron density on the O−H bond. Therefore, release of proton becomes difficult. On the other hand, the −I effect of F decreases the electron density on the O−H bond. Therefore, proton can be released easily. Hence, CH2FCO2H is a stronger acid than CH3CO2H.
F has stronger −I effect than Cl. Therefore, CH2FCO2H can release proton more easily than CH2ClCO2H. Hence, CH2FCO2H is stronger acid than CH2ClCO2H.
Inductive effect decreases with increase in distance. Hence, the +I effect of F in CH3CHFCH2CO2H is more than it is in CH2FCH2CH2CO2H. Hence, CH3CHFCH2CO2H is stronger acid than CH2FCH2CH2CO2H.
Due to the −I effect of F, it is easier to release proton in the case of compound (A). However, in the case of compound (B), release of proton is difficult due to the +I effect of −CH3 group. Hence, (A) is a stronger acid than (B).
What is meant by the following terms? Give an example of the reaction in each case.
(i) Cyanohydrin (ii) Acetal
(iii) Semicarbazone (iv) Aldol
(v) Hemiacetal (vi) Oxime
(vii) Ketal (vii) Imine
(ix) 2,4-DNP-derivative (x) Schiff’s base
Cyanohydrins are organic compounds having the formula RR′C(OH)CN, where R and R′ can be alkyl or aryl groups.
Aldehydes and ketones react with hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the presence of excess sodium cyanide (NaCN) as a catalyst to field cyanohydrin. These reactions are known as cyanohydrin reactions.
Cyanohydrins are useful synthetic intermediates.
Acetals are gem−dialkoxy alkanes in which two alkoxy groups are present on the terminal carbon atom. One bond is connected to an alkyl group while the other is connected to a hydrogen atom.
When aldehydes are treated with two equivalents of a monohydric alcohol in the presence of dry HCl gas, hemiacetals are produced that further react with one more molecule of alcohol to yield acetal.
Semicarbazones are derivatives of aldehydes and ketones produced by the condensation reaction between a ketone or aldehyde and semicarbazide.
Semicarbazones are useful for identification and characterization of aldehydes and ketones.
A β-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone is known as an aldol. It is produced by the condensation reaction of two molecules of the same or one molecule each of two different aldehydes or ketones in the presence of a base.
Hemiacetals are α−alkoxyalcohols
General structure of a hemiacetal
Aldehyde reacts with one molecule of a monohydric alcohol in the presence of dry HCl gas.
Oximes are a class of organic compounds having the general formula RR′CNOH, where R is an organic side chain and R′ is either hydrogen or an organic side chain. If R′ is H, then it is known as aldoxime and if R′ is an organic side chain, it is known as ketoxime.
On treatment with hydroxylamine in a weakly acidic medium, aldehydes or ketones form oximes.
Ketals are gem−dialkoxyalkanes in which two alkoxy groups are present on the same carbon atom within the chain. The other two bonds of the carbon atom are connected to two alkyl groups.
Ketones react with ethylene glycol in the presence of dry HCl gas to give a cyclic product known as ethylene glycol ketals.
Imines are chemical compounds containing a carbon nitrogen double bond.
Imines are produced when aldehydes and ketones react with ammonia and its derivatives.
(ix) 2, 4−DNP−derivative:
2, 4−dinitrophenylhydragones are 2, 4−DNP−derivatives, which are produced when aldehydes or ketones react with 2, 4−dinitrophenylhydrazine in a weakly acidic medium.
To identify and characterize aldehydes and ketones, 2, 4−DNP derivatives are used.
(x) Schiff’s base:
Schiff’s base (or azomethine) is a chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond with the nitrogen atom connected to an aryl or alkyl group-but not hydrogen. They have the general formula R1R2C = NR3. Hence, it is an imine.
It is named after a scientist, Hugo Schiff.
Aldehydes and ketones on treatment with primary aliphatic or aromatic amines in the presence of trace of an acid yields a Schiff’s base.
Name the following compounds according to IUPAC system of nomenclature:
(vi) 3,3-Dimethylbutanoic acid
Draw the structures of the following compounds.
(i) 3-Methylbutanal (ii) p-Nitropropiophenone
(iii) p-Methylbenzaldehyde (iv) 4-Methylpent-3-en-2-one
(v) 4-Chloropentan-2-one (vi) 3-Bromo-4-phenylpentanoic acid
(vii) p,p’-Dihydroxybenzophenone (viii) Hex-2-en-4-ynoic acid
Write the IUPAC names of the following ketones and aldehydes. Wherever possible, give also common names.
(i) CH3CO(CH2)4CH3 (ii) CH3CH2CHBrCH2CH(CH3)CHO
(iii) CH3(CH2)5CHO (iv) Ph-CH=CH-CHO
(v) (vi) PhCOPh
IUPAC name: Heptan-2-one
Common name: Methyl n-propyl ketone
IUPAC name: 4-Bromo-2-methylhaxanal
Common name: (γ-Bromo-α-methyl-caproaldehyde)
IUPAC name: Heptanal
IUPAC name: 3-phenylprop-2-enal
Common name: β-Pheynolacrolein
IUPAC name: Cyclopentanecarbaldehyde
IUPAC name: Diphenylmethanone
Common name: Benzophenone
Draw structures of the following derivatives.
(i) The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of benzaldehyde
(ii) Cyclopropanone oxime
(iv) The semicarbazone of cyclobutanone
(v) The ethylene ketal of hexan-3-one
(vi) The methyl hemiacetal of formaldehyde
Predict the products formed when cyclohexanecarbaldehyde reacts with following reagents.
(i) PhMgBr and then H3O+
(iii) Semicarbazide and weak acid
(iv)Excess ethanol and acid
(v) Zinc amalgam and dilute hydrochloric acid
Which of the following compounds would undergo aldol condensation, which the Cannizzaro reaction and which neither? Write the structures of the expected products of aldol condensation and Cannizzaro reaction.
(i) Methanal (ii) 2-Methylpentanal
(iii) Benzaldehyde (iv) Benzophenone
(v) Cyclohexanone (vi) 1-Phenylpropanone
(vii) Phenylacetaldehyde (viii) Butan-1-ol
(ix) 2, 2-Dimethylbutanal
Aldehydes and ketones having at least one α-hydrogen undergo aldol condensation. The compounds (ii) 2−methylpentanal, (v) cyclohexanone, (vi) 1-phenylpropanone, and (vii) phenylacetaldehyde contain one or more α-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, these undergo aldol condensation.
Aldehydes having no α-hydrogen atoms undergo Cannizzaro reactions. The compounds (i) Methanal, (iii) Benzaldehyde, and (ix) 2, 2-dimethylbutanal do not have any α-hydrogen. Therefore, these undergo cannizzaro reactions.
Compound (iv) Benzophenone is a ketone having no α-hydrogen atom and compound (viii) Butan-1-ol is an alcohol. Hence, these compounds do not undergo either aldol condensation or cannizzaro reactions.
How will you convert ethanal into the following compounds?
(i) Butane-1, 3-diol (ii) But-2-enal (iii) But-2-enoic acid
(i) On treatment with dilute alkali, ethanal produces 3-hydroxybutanal gives butane-1, 3-diol on reduction.
(ii) On treatment with dilute alkali, ethanal gives 3-hydroxybutanal which on heating produces but-2-enal.
(iii) When treated with Tollen’s reagent, But-2-enal produced in the above reaction produces but-2-enoic acid .
Write structural formulas and names of four possible aldol condensation products from propanal and butanal. In each case, indicate which aldehyde acts as nucleophile and which as electrophile.
(i) Taking two molecules of propanal, one which acts as a nucleophile and the other as an electrophile.
(ii) Taking two molecules of butanal, one which acts as a nucleophile and the other as an electrophile.
(iii) Taking one molecule each of propanal and butanal in which propanal acts as a nucleophile and butanal acts as an electrophile.
(iv) Taking one molecule each of propanal and butanal in which propanal acts as an electrophile and butanal acts as a nucleophile.
An organic compound with the molecular formula C9H10O forms 2, 4-DNP derivative, reduces Tollens’ reagent and undergoes Cannizzaro reaction. On vigorous oxidation, it gives 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Identify the compound.
It is given that the compound (with molecular formula C9H10O) forms 2, 4-DNP derivative and reduces Tollen’s reagent. Therefore, the given compound must be an aldehyde.
Again, the compound undergoes cannizzaro reaction and on oxidation gives 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Therefore, the −CHO group is directly attached to a benzene ring and this benzaldehyde is ortho-substituted. Hence, the compound is 2-ethylbenzaldehyde.
The given reactions can be explained by the following equations.
An organic compound (A) (molecular formula C8H16O2) was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid to give a carboxylic acid (B) and an alcohol (C). Oxidation of (C) with chromic acid produced (B). (C) on dehydration gives but-1-ene.Write equations for the reactions involved.
An organic compound A with molecular formula C8H16O2 gives a carboxylic acid (B) and an alcohol (C) on hydrolysis with dilute sulphuric acid. Thus, compound A must be an ester. Further, alcohol C gives acid B on oxidation with chromic acid. Thus, B and C must contain equal number of carbon atoms.
Since compound A contains a total of 8 carbon atoms, each of B and C contain 4 carbon atoms.
Again, on dehydration, alcohol C gives but-1-ene. Therefore, C is of straight chain and hence, it is butan-1-ol.
On oxidation, Butan-1-ol gives butanoic acid. Hence, acid B is butanoic acid.
Hence, the ester with molecular formula C8H16O2 is butylbutanoate.
All the given reactions can be explained by the following equations.
Arrange the following compounds in increasing order of their property as indicated:
(i) Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Di-tert-butyl ketone, Methyl tert-butyl ketone (reactivity towards HCN)
(ii) CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH, CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH, (CH3)2CHCOOH, CH3CH2CH2COOH (acid strength)
(iii) Benzoic acid, 4-Nitrobenzoic acid, 3,4-Dinitrobenzoic acid, 4-Methoxybenzoic acid (acid strength)
(i) When HCN reacts with a compound, the attacking species is a nucleophile, CN−. Therefore, as the negative charge on the compound increases, its reactivity with HCN decreases. In the given compounds, the +I effect increases as shown below. It can be observed that steric hindrance also increases in the same
Hence, the given compounds can be arranged according to their increasing reactivities toward HCN as:
Di-tert-butyl ketone < Methyl tert-butyl ketone < Acetone < Acetaldehyde
(ii) After losing a proton, carboxylic acids gain a negative charge as shown:
Now, any group that will help stabilise the negative charge will increase the stability of the carboxyl ion and as a result, will increase the strength of the acid. Thus, groups having +I effect will decrease the strength of the acids and groups having −I effect will increase the strength of the acids. In the given compounds, −CH3 group has +I effect and Br− group has −I effect. Thus, acids containing Br− are stronger.
Now, the +I effect of isopropyl group is more than that of n-propyl group. Hence, (CH3)2CHCOOH is a weaker acid than CH3CH2CH2COOH.
Also, the −I effect grows weaker as distance increases. Hence, CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH is a weaker acid than CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH.
Hence, the strengths of the given acids increase as:
(CH3)2CHCOOH < CH3CH2CH2COOH < CH3CH(Br)CH2COOH < CH3CH2CH(Br)COOH
(iii) As we have seen in the previous case, electron-donating groups decrease the strengths of acids, while electron-withdrawing groups increase the strengths of acids. As methoxy group is an electron-donating group, 4-methoxybenzoic acid is a weaker acid than benzoic acid. Nitro group is an electron-withdrawing group and will increase the strengths of acids. As 3,4-dinitrobenzoic acid contains two nitro groups, it is a slightly stronger acid than 4-nitrobenzoic acid. Hence, the strengths of the given acids increase as:
4-Methoxybenzoic acid < Benzoic acid < 4-Nitrobenzoic acid
< 3,4-Dinitrobenzoic acid
Give simple chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.
(i) Propanal and Propanone
(ii) Acetophenone and Benzophenone
(iii) Phenol and Benzoic acid
(iv) Benzoic acid and Ethyl benzoate
(v) Pentan-2-one and Pentan-3-one
(vi) Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone
(vii) Ethanal and Propanal
(i) Propanal and propanone can be distinguished by the following tests.
(a) Tollen’s test
Propanal is an aldehyde. Thus, it reduces Tollen’s reagent. But, propanone being a ketone does not reduce Tollen’s reagent.
(b) Fehling’s test
Aldehydes respond to Fehling’s test, but ketones do not.
Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Fehling’s solution to a red-brown precipitate of Cu2O, but propanone being a ketone does not.
(c) Iodoform test:
Aldehydes and ketones having at least one methyl group linked to the carbonyl carbon atom respond to iodoform test. They are oxidized by sodium hypoiodite (NaOI) to give iodoforms. Propanone being a methyl ketone responds to this test, but propanal does not.
(ii) Acetophenone and Benzophenone can be distinguished using the iodoform test.
Methyl ketones are oxidized by sodium hypoiodite to give yellow ppt. of iodoform. Acetophenone being a methyl ketone responds to this test, but benzophenone does not.
(iii) Phenol and benzoic acid can be distinguished by ferric chloride test.
Ferric chloride test:
Phenol reacts with neutral FeCl3 to form an iron-phenol complex giving violet colouration.
But benzoic acid reacts with neutral FeCl3 to give a buff coloured ppt. of ferric benzoate.
(iv) Benzoic acid and Ethyl benzoate can be distinguished by sodium bicarbonate test.
Sodium bicarbonate test:
Acids react with NaHCO3 to produce brisk effervescence due to the evolution of CO2 gas.
Benzoic acid being an acid responds to this test, but ethylbenzoate does not.